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This model is based upon the work of Piaget (1896-1980), Bruner (1915- ), and Vygotsky (1896-1934) and is influential to the years. This model originated from the work of Kant (1724-1804) and views children partly as ‘empty vessels’ (transmission model) and partly pre programmed (laissez- faire model) with an interaction between the two. It emphasises environmental, biological, cultural factors and sees children as active participants in their learning and development rather than the adult like the ‘transmission model’.

Piaget’s work has had major influence on development psychology and on learning and education. He believed that from birth, the child actively chooses and interprets information from the environment they also have the ability to adapt and learn. Piaget stated children go through a series of stages mental or cognitive, these happen always in the same order but at different rates. He also emphasized that the child was an active participant in their own learning.

Below are the four stages of cognitive/mental development: Sensori-motor (birth to three years): at this stage the child is born into the world and is small and helpless however they can move with basic reflexes and senses, leading to more complex actions such as hitting and grasping. Pre-operational (two to seven years): during this stage a child begins to represent actions with symbols.

Words begin to represent objects and people in the child’s thinking. At this stage children are thought very different to the way adults think. Concrete-operational (seven years to twelve years): their intelligence is now more symbolic and logical. They still however need to relate their thinking to concrete objects and activities e. g. putting objects away in height order or the difference between similar objects like roses and daisies.

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