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Rock Street, San Francisco

For activities where maximum muscular endurance is required such as a sixty minute Gaelic football match. I will need to be performing 3 sets of 3 repetitions at 60-80% of my 1 repetition maximum. I will be carrying out my weight training in the fitness suite so I will use a lot of the machines available to me, for example: The Pec Dec, which is used for the pectoral muscles, leg curl, which is used for the hamstrings, biceps curl, which is used for the biceps, by using these weight machines I hope to improve the status of my muscular endurance.

By carrying out this type of training I hope to improve my muscular endurance. As a consequence of using this training method the following adaptations will occur to my body: One adaptation that might occur is increased capillarisation of the muscles, this is according to ‘Wesson Et Al’ new capillaries may develop, which enables more blood flow to the muscles and enables more oxygen to reach the muscles. Furthermore existing capillaries become more efficient and allow greater amounts of blood to reach the muscles, which also become more efficient at extracting the oxygen.

Each week I hope to carry out at least two sessions per week to contribute to my Personal Exercise Programme, one will be fitness suite based and one will be circuit class. As a consequence of using this training method the following adaptations will occur to my body: Again if this training method is carried out successfully, my muscular endurance will improve and so should mylevel of performance. Application Of Theory Principles of Training. Before I begin any training session it is important for me to understand the different principles of training and relate them to my training programmes.

The principle of Overload Overload- For the body’s systems to make these adaptations, they must be overloaded. Just taking part in an activity will not cause any improvements in fitness, as the body will not be stressed to a greater extent than normal. The body can be overloaded in two ways. Increasing frequency of the exercise. Increasing the time, which is to be spent on each exercise. People who are not of an adequate fitness level may start of by carrying out exercise which is not overly strenuous but then build the intensity of the exercise up for the next session.

For each of my training sessions I will overload each week in order to improve my fitness levels. For my cardio-vascular work I intend to attempt to overload either the length of time, which I spend on the running machine or the speed at which I am running. For my weight training sessions I intend to attempt to overload each week by increasing the size of weight, which I will be using, increasing repetitions or increasing the number of sets I do, and for the circuit training I intend to attempt to overload by either increasing the amount of time spent at each station or increasing the number of circuits that I carry out.

The principle of progression Progression- The overload imposed on an athlete must be progressive. If a training programme stays at the same intensity adaptations will only be evident at the beginning, as after this the body; the body needs to be given time to adapt to the changes that it will be making as there will be increased demands on it. So this means that the level of exercise should be gradually intensified. If this is not carried out it can result in the muscles becoming torn or injuries occurring. The fitter I become will mean that it will be harder for me to make improvement. From this I hope to be able to show that I am gradually reaching my full potential. I hope to be involved in at least two training sessions each week so that I can gradually progress in fitness.

Each week I should find my training sessions a bit tougher but as my fitness will build up I should be able to complete them without suffering from tiredness. The Principle of Reversibility Reversibility- The adaptations that take place as a result of training are all reversible. Adaptations to endurance training can be lost more quickly than it takes to achieve them while strength gains are lost more slowly

. Any improvement made through fitness can be reversed. Your body will build up fitness levels through exercise, when exercise stops the body begins to gradually lose the levels of fitness, which it has gained. It doesn’t take long for your body to lose its fitness it can occur in only three or four weeks. Muscles become weaker, and up to seven weeks of inactivity can produce physiological effects. As I said before I will carry out at least two training sessions per week, this is to increase my fitness levels, if I want to keep them at a high standard I must continue this training and ensure that I carry it out during the week.

The Principle of Specificity

Specificity- Is the least complex training principle. In order for a training programme to be effective it must be specific for the sport and position of the performer. Every exercise that is carried has a specific effect on your body. For example, leg press is specific to strengthen leg muscles. The law of specificity suggests that any training undertaken should be relevant and appropriate to the sport, which the performer is training for. The specificity rule covers more than just he muscles, fibre type and actions used but also the energy systems, which are predominantly stressed. The energy system used in training should replicate that predominantly used during exercise. The energy systems should also be stressed in isolation of each other so that high intensity work should be done in one session.

When designing my PEP I need to use equipment, which is specific to the exercises I will be carrying out to improve my cardio-vascular fitness and my muscular endurance. I will do this by using a running machine to improve my cardio-vascular fitness as this will help to increase my heart beat and will help me reach the required training zone. For muscular endurance I will choose exercises which are specific for improving my level of muscular endurance, for example carrying out sit ups during a circuit training session Most of us reach our peak of physical fitness in our mid twenties or early thirties. The extent to which our fitness declines Is largely due to increased inactivity which accompanies the ageing process. Numerous studies have concluded that there are many physiological changes that occur with age, and exercise can decrease the rate at which this decline occurs.

Cardio-respiratory functioning for example will decline for many reasons: Maximum heart rate decreases by approximately one beat per minute, every year. This has a knock-on effect to cardiac output which consequently decreases as we age. Stroke volume also decreases, due to the laying down of collagen fibres in the myocardium of the heart. This reduces the heart’s elasticity and contractility. The formation of fibrous plaques in the arteries is associated with the ageing process, and so peripheral resistance to blood flow is increased. These factors result in a reduced blood flow around the body and a decreased ability to transport oxygen to the working muscles. Aerobic capacity therefore decreases at an estimated rate of 10% per decade, largely due to a reduced V02 maximum and a decreased a- V02 (less oxygen is being taken from the blood and utilised in the muscles.

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