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There are great difficulties in measuring the intelligence of animals and furthermore measuring the intelligence of animals can be problematic Olds and Milner stimulated rats by an electrode implanted near their limbic system Shows that rats stimulate themselves more than 2000 times per day within 24 consecutive hours for a reward of electrical self stimulation of the brain Basic physiology of the brain and the nervous system of animals is similar to humans.

Washoe and the Gardners taught sign language to a chimpanzee and then sent the chimpanzee away to new owners when the chimpanzee was 5 years old only to come back eleven years after to observe if the chimpanzee remembered the language Shows that non humans really are capable of learning and understanding language Raises crucial ethical questions such as “What happens to the animals after they’ve served their purpose as experimental subjects? ” Seligman exposed dogs to electric shocks they could not avoid.

The dogs were given shocks after a warning signal Shows that dogs have two forms of learning. The first form is learned helplessness which means not avoiding something within a situation. The second form is avoidance learning which means avoiding something by escaping out of the situation Compared with humans, non-humans are smaller and therefore are easier to study within the laboratory. This makes it much easier to study their development, since several generations can be studied in a relatively short time.

Blakemore and Cooper used kittens to conduct a classic study to observe the specific effects that visual experience has on the type of perception that is developed Shows that the ability to perceive line orientations can be lost due to adjustments made in the visual cortex during critical periods Evidence from studies of non human animals must be treated with caution because it is possible that their perceptual systems are less affected by experience than humans perceptual systems.

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