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Granulovacoules are the abnormal appearance of small holes in the nerve cells. An evaluation point of brain abnormalities is the research and various experiments involving the introduction of beta amyloid protein into the brain of rats, the findings show that both brain damage and memory impairments occur which suggests that plaques may be a cause of AD symptoms in humans. However a problem with these types of experiments is that the findings cant be generalised to humans because of the physical and psychological differences. It is also unethical to harm animals in the way and could be said that these findings could lead to anthropomorphism.

Environmental factors may also be the cause of memory impairments and brain damage , it can also be explained by the area lived in, diet, upbringing, exercise etc. Amnesia Repression: its been suggested that emotions have been shown to affect memory recall. Emotions can make it difficult to remember or unforgettable.   Freud believed that forgetting is an unconscious motivated process. He came up with motivated forgetting which involved memories which were too emotionally painful to be forgotten using a defence mechanism such as repression and denial.

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It was said that in repression painful feelings are at first conscious and then are forgotten, but they are stored in the unconscious from where they can be retrieved. Repression can range from momentary lapses of forgetting the details of a horrific event such as a murder. Amnesia can occur in cases where the person has experienced something extremely painful. Freud says that the Oedipus and Elektra complex go through repression whereby the child represses incestuous desires towards the the opposite sex parent and feelings of rivalry towards the same sex parent.

Freud didn’t believe all forgetting can be explained through repression but most of it could be due to getting rid of unwanted and unnecessary information. People may forget experiences because of unpleasant associations for e. g. you may forget your homework because you didn’t want to do it so you simply pushed it out of your mind. This is called suppression which is a conscious or semi conscious behaviour as distinct from repression that occurs unconsciously. Repression is when the ego protects itself from emotional conflicts.

Traumatic events cause anxiety and to reduce this the memory of the even is forgotten, this anxiety maybe expressed through dreams or disordered behaviour as in the the case of little Hams. The repressed memories continue to affect conscious thought,desire and action even though there is no conscious memory of the traumatic event. Once the traumatic event is repressed  from the conscious mind to the unconscious mind it make individual feel better,at least temporarily.

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