Bower suggested that if they were surprised that there was no cube there then obviously they could not tell that there is any difference so could obviously see the depth cues. So this suggests that since they are of such a young age and would not have had enough time to learn, then perception must be innate. The results of this study by Bower were later reinforced in his later studies. This study however does not prove without doubt that perception is innate, as we do not know how long it would take for perception to be learned if it is a learned thing.
So in this study depth perception may have already been learned by the babies by the time they took part in the study. To test if it is innate or not this study would have to be carried out with new born babies. Also in this study Bower does not prove that the babies can actually perceive the depth, all he proves is that the babies cannot see any difference between the real cube and the illusion, so his theory doesn’t have good evidence to support it.
Looking at these four studies we can see there are arguments that suggest both sides of the argument. However it is very difficult to do a study which will prove that perception is innate as there is always time for the children to learn before the study, unless the study is done the second a child is born, however a study to test perception requires a response, which may be difficult to test for on a newly born baby. What is clear from these studies is that if perception is in fact learned then it is learned very quickly at a very young age.
The information does suggest that perception is innate; however there is also a lot of information that suggests it is learned. Also there are many different types of perception, and some of these studies look at different ones. Some could be innate, and some could be learned, it could be that none of these studies reach the wrong conclusion. It would be apparent that some factors are indeed innate and some are learned, but we are definitely born with the potential to have perception.