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Cognitive and cognitive behavioural techniques are becoming more popular as they work well with disorders like depression, low self-esteem, etc – Also offers good long term strategies for coping with problems in the future Blame is on the individual: – The therapist blames the client as being responsible for their thought processes by saying they are in control of their own faulty thinking. – Some psychologists explain depression as an indulgence of self-defeating thoughts – Clients who fail cognitive therapy will feel worse about themselves because the blame is put onto them – Could be unethical as this causes the person to be even more distressed


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The common factor between all cognitive therapists is that they all believe faulty thinking is the cause of abnormality. Therapy usually involves identifying the self defeating statements of the individual and challenging them. The client often keeps a diary of their positive and negative thoughts, practices positive affirmations, etc. Evaluation – Models of Abnormality These four models of psychology are useful for looking at curing abnormality in very different ways, depending on the situation and what kind of psychologist the client/patient goes to. It is never certain that only one kind of treatment will help cure someone of an abnormality as everyone is different.

The Behavioural Model is useful as it tries to eliminate the behaviour that the abnormality is causing, however since it does not try to cure the causes of the problem, only the product, this usually means that the abnormality is not entirely dealt with. The Psychodynamic Model is helpful for a lot of people as it is a coherent system of ideas and theories which many find useful. This model does not work for everyone however as many people believe Freud’s ideas are too outdated and irrelevant today, whereas others have updated his theory with new modern ideas.

The Biological Model looks at the abnormality very scientifically – diagnosing mental illnesses is a very “black and white/set in stone” process. Many peoples’ symptoms are helped through the psychiatric treatments this model offers, although a main criticism is that the psychological causes of the abnormality are not being dealt with. The Cognitive Model is gaining more attention as time goes on, especially when mixing techniques with the other models. It explains abnormality by the thought processes of the individual and seeks to change them, which should in turn change their behaviour and rid them of the abnormality. However a lot of responsibility and pressure is put on the client and they can often feel worse from the treatment if they feel they are to blame for their abnormality.

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