Many coaches go back over games with videos to show their side what they can do to improve. Assistant coaches also give feedback on performances. Most pro clubs use videos because they have the time and places to do like Sir Alex, but amateur sides mainly stick to verbal feedback which is what Tony sticks to. The quality of a session Sir Alex would take would be much better than a sessions set by Tony. This is due to facilities, equipment and they players themselves. Tony’s sessions made need more explanation than Sir Alex’s due to him having a less able squad of players.
Most coaches to get the best quality out of their team have them repeat a drill over and over again. I have mentioned before that pro/elite coaches have more time with their squad so they can repeat exercises over and over again. Amateur coaches such as Tony will not have as much time to practice everything as thoroughly so his coaching may have to be of a better quality than others. A way for him to help improve the quality of the end product is to give his players extra encouragement because if they are positive they will perform better than how they would with a negative mentality. The proper name for this technique is called repetitive-part method which involves teaching and practising a skill or technique until it is learnt and then combining a second part and practising and learning the two parts together until they are learnt.
Whole-part-whole is a method that involves teaching the whole first skill and allowing the performer to practise it. One of the parts is then isolated, taught and practised, and when it has been effectively learnt the whole is practised again. This process is repeated, adding the different parts to the whole. Tony would have done this a lot when his side was much younger. Sir Alex would not really look to do this.
When a coach is teaching a new skill the performer will need to able to see the skill being performed correctly and to have a model of the required actions. Most of the time it is easier to perform an action that to describe it verbally. It is very important that the demonstration is completely correct. If the skill is correct is will create a visual image for the performer to copy. Four things a coach should make sure of when demonstrating is; make sure all the performers are paying attention and that they are all able to see. Secondly they should ensure that the demonstration emphasises the key coaching points of the skill. Also they should ensure the skills are demonstrated at the appropriate level for the performers and they should repeat demonstrations enough times for performers to understand what is required. Sir Alex would not really have to do this because hey work on practising skills where as Tony would have done when his side was starting off to get the best out of them.
All good coaches should be able to identify weaknesses and strengths and then be able to correct them. If they can not, a team can never move forwards because the same mistakes will be made over and over again. Sir Alex can let his team flow and practice and give them a chance to bring things together. Teams that don’t have as much time need to get things right from the first chance they have so they can progress. Giving encouragement is a big part of being a coach because a player will never make mistakes on purpose and if they do, have a word; bit of encouragement and then eventually you will get the final product you wanted. A lot of this is connected with analysing and problem solving. If you can spot a weakness, identify it, know how to correct it and build upon your strengths, it is a very good strength you can have as a coach.
Many coaches will give feedback, but when they do they will also demonstrate so they can put their point across better. Both coaches are good at doing this otherwise they would not be as successful as they are. Being able to give good clear feedback and being able to demonstrate well will always help your team progress. It is important to provide feedback to ensure that performers are aware of their progress. Some coaches behave in a manor that suggests that they are only criticising, but feedback should and usually is constructive and provides information that helps with learning processes. Tony and mainly Sir Alex are well known for giving out good feedback.
One of the most essential techniques a coach has to have is good decision making skills. A coach that can take off their best player while losing, and finish with a victory is a top coach. Sir Alex has done it before and so has Tony. If a coach can make good decisions it helps earn more respect, then the players being moved around will understand even more and they it will help get a good team spirit and get rid of individuals.
A good technique for a coach to have is monitoring skills. It is inevitable that a performer when practising a skill, they will make mistakes and there may be errors in their performance. A coach needs to be able to analyse the performance in order to identify which features need to be correct dot improved. Sir Alex has become very successful due to this and Tony has helped his younger players as they have progressed into higher football.
There are five main styles of coaching. I feel both managers use these styles even with the level of players they have. The first is part-whole which involves teaching all of the different component parts separately before attempting the whole skill. This method is most effective when the components do not form a natural sequence of actions. The second is progressive-part method. With this approach a performer is taught one part and then a second part. When the two parts are learnt they are combined and practised together. The third part is then taught by itself and then the three parts are combined and practised together, and so on.
The third method is repetitive-part method. This approach is similar to the previous method but involves teaching and practising a part until it is learnt and then combining a second part and practising and learning the two parts together until they are learnt. Whole-part-whole method is an approach that involves teaching the whole skill first and allowing the performer to practise it. One of the parts is then isolated, taught and practised, and when this has been effectively learnt the whole is practised again. This process is then repeated, adding the different parts of the whole. The fifth and final method is whole method. This simply teaches the whole skill without breaking it down into its constituent components, and is probably not effective for complex skills.
Guidance is a good technique for coaches to have. Sir Alex would not really look to do this, he would work on practising the skills because his players would be already elite performers form being at youth academies, but Tony would have done this with his team when they were starting off at an early age. There are three types of guidance, visual, verbal and manual. In most instances a performer practising a skill may require additional guidance from the coach to help develop the correct movement patterns associated with that skill. The guidance will have been shown in the three types of guidance.
Visual guidance occurs when a coach follows up an initial demonstration with a more detailed, step-by-step run through of the skill and the have the performer mirror the actions being shown. To help as much as possible the coach should perform it nice and slowly and then have the performer imitate the action immediately after having observed it. Verbal guidance is when the coach tells the performer what to do and the performer follows his/her instructions. This is a very good approach when the coach adds verbal cues to each different part of the movement and then repeats them at subsequent executions. Manual guidance involves the coach physically moving the performer through a particular movement pattern and encouraging the performer to feel the action. After a few practises the performer should be asked to perform the movement without the coach’s help.
Both coaches are good a reinforcements. It is obvious that Sir Alex’s positives are going to be very open for his players because he can offer them around 1000 goal scoring bonus. With Tony players would look to win trophies at the end of the season. When training maybe if you lose a certain activity you may be made to do extra press-ups or sit-ups, so this brings the best out of his players. Many amateur clubs look for trophies at the end of season, club trophies that is. They are the main incentives for that type of club. There are many reinforcements that coaches use to get the best out of their performers.