Merchandising companies such as Nike, Adidas, Asics and Reebok will all excel in terms of business. This is for the simple fact that players require special running shoes and clothing such as Lycra wear, shorts and vests. Big events can improve the reputations and sales of the merchandisers, for example, designing tops with scientific background such as the ‘Nike Pro’ tops with keep cool or keep warm fabrics. Sales can come to the correct form of promotion and following the latest trends and looks.
If a company like Nike supply the newest high tech running shoe to a team like USA in the Olympics which they currently do, it will create a huge advertisement service to people in different countries, because USA have one of the most successful running teams in the world. Companies will also want to boost their reputation so getting the right athletes to sponsor their leisure wear and equipment will work well. They want this because it makes them masses amounts of money with sales, further more they are all global companies which advertise to millions of people world wide.
On a local scale, clubs such as Crystal Palace, Sutton and Croydon supply people in the local community with jobs. This can mean coaches, ground staff to maintain the track. Holding major events, as Crystal Palace do, it can employ further people into jobs such as ticket officers, security (stewards), umpires and officials to examine the race and record times. These clubs give access to young children and adults wanting to take part in athletics, it also helps them to develop their techniques and express their abilities. Additionally it can produce local people into top professional athletes such as Martin Rooney who was a member at Croydon Harriers., who ran in the commonwealth games in Australia. When local clubs produce a player like this it gives the area a good reputation and attracts more players into joining that club, giving the community a good sense of well-being.
Tracks like Crystal Palace hold meetings between national and International runners, which can sometimes attract large crowds. Events like these produce extra money for the club so it can be spent building on improving the facilities and helping invest a level of coaches. Athletics as a whole Is a big industry with lots of jobs to offer in the community. It holds many events in the sporting calendar but does not quite produce the type of media attention like Football. Due to the fact that Football is the most popular sport in UK and it is a multi-million pound business.
By London hosting the Olympics in 2012, a bigger attraction towards athletics will come about and boost its popularity rating and future development of the area, backing this up with the quotes I delivered for each of the two sports. P1 & M1& D1-Development and Changing nature of sport Organisations nowadays are split up into 3 categories: – Public sector provision, Private sector provision and Voluntary sector provision.
The definitions for these are:- Public sector- Sport and leisure provision organised by local or metropolitan authorities and available to everyone in the community. It is mainly financed by local authority taxation and funding. Private sector- Provide a service to the local population in terms of their sport and leisure interests, but they provide those facilities, programmes or activities to make profit.
Voluntary sector- Composed of thousands of small, medium and large organisations who support their own sport, their local community or their age group in pursuit of sport and recreation activities. (B-Tec national sport, Barker; Saipe; Sutton; Tucker)
These sectors occur in our environment nowadays and show the way sport is organised and funded, including the massive popularity it encounters, however this was not the case in the olden days. Taking for example the medieval times, physical activities included the preparation of populace wars, hunting for food or to improve general physical fitness, making them fit enough to work long hard hours in the week. Peasants in this era had very little time and energy to be involved in physical activities where work was not involved on the land. Nevertheless, there were times when the village would gather on holy days and festivals to play a game of ‘Mob Football’ which was a very violent but popular game to all with very little or no rules at all, the only rules which were intact was the exclusion of murder or manslaughter, Rival villages often played each other on shrove Tuesdays. The game ‘Mob Football’ started between the 7th and 9th century.
Some reasons for the growth of Football were the improvement of transport, the growth of the railway from the 1840’s allowed people to travel around England. In addition to this Football was a cheap sport to play and could be played anywhere and in any type of condition. The activities which were done by the ruling class as it were eventually become the sports that we know today. Taking for example hunting, this was done by the upper class as they would have had the land and the money to participate in the sport. In addition to this they also had more time available which was the complete opposite for the peasants or lower class.
In the nineteenth century the upper classes started to send their children to public schools, now referred to as independent ‘private’ schools. These schools were only exclusive to those of the upper class as they did not want to associate with the lower class and further more they could not afford it. Here is where sports really excelled, as the sporting activities which became very popular within these schools, spilled over and become the sports that we play today, such as Football and Rugby. Along with this developed innovations and refinements to the game where rules, facilities and organised way of playing the sport were placed.
The history of Football and Rugby spans from around 150 years ago. Rugby recorded its first set of written rules in 1845. They then wanted to excel from this making Rugby Football union, 18 years later in 1863. However association football did not agree with the precise rule of running with the ball in hand or hacking between players. This is when the world’s first football organisation formed; the Football association (FA-1863) to compel its own set of rules. The FA’s first cup competition was first played for in 1871 and the first football league was produced in 1888. This league consisted of 12 clubs: – Accrington Stanley, Aston Villa, Blackburn Rovers, Bolton Wanderers, Burnley, Derby County, Everton, Notts. County, Preston North End, Stoke City and West Bromwich Albion. Nowadays in England, we have clubs for basically every major and minor area, Including 5 divisions for professional Football, ranging from the premiership to the conference league. This involves new cup competitions like the charity shield, LDV vans trophy and the carling cup, one trophy which still remains is the FA cup.
After the middle of the 19th century sport started to develop rapidly, one major reason which influenced the decision of people to play sports was the extra amount of leisure time available. Relating back to an earlier date, in 1965 a working week of around 40-45 hours was typical, but in the times of today the average working week is around 37 hours. This change in working time allows more people to be involved in fitness gyms and sporting activities, like being apart of a club and training after work. It has now become a law that workers should have at least 4 weeks holiday a year, this means that people still get paid during their holiday times, something which was not even considered below the 19th century.
A lot has changed in contrast to the medieval times to current date, where by peasants in that era put all their effort, energy and time went into working and nowadays a majority of us have the spare time and energy to have a full workout at the gym. Organisation’s like the Public, Private and Voluntary sectors have made the access to leisure facilities incredibly easy for us. For example most gyms that we are members too are run by the private sector, for example Cannons, Living well and Esporta.
The role that these Gym’s take on is to produce a healthy lifestyle as far too many of the population is overweight; Clubs try to attract people by targeting a reasonable price and the convenience it can bring to a member. Most gym’s now offer a one to one personal trainer to help people get fit in an effective and safe way. Something which has changed over the centuries is the knowledge of the body and how it works. In addition to this other classes which gym’s offer are aerobics, Pilates, muscle toning, calorie burning and swimming sessions. This shows the depth and knowledge which people have to improve the physical fitness on people to the current date, a huge difference to the early years of the 19th century.
People are able to access more leisure time because of their flexibility in hours for example many people work part-time (a higher percentage of women) and others on varied shifts which results to a different pattern of leisure time which is why private sector gym’s can now be open from 9:00am in the morning to 10:00pm at night. People now have higher disposable incomes and can afford a higher standard of living, research shows that for some people 20% of their monthly wage is spent on membership to gyms. Transport is a lot more efficient for example; all gyms can be reached by a bus and are mainly situated on or by main roads. Car ownership is an ever increasing figure which allows people to get their conveniently without wasting any time on travelling.