The songs are quite silly. And there’s this stupid monkey who is always saying, “Xiao peng you men, ni men xue hui le mah? Xiao peng you men, ni men xue hui le mah? ” (“Little kids, have you all understood well? “) So irritating! Conclusion Although the home is a fruitful area of research in code-mixing, there are certain limitations of a study like this one. Firstly, conversational rather than situational code-switching is given prominence as the setting is kept constant. Secondly, the study is only focus on the three selected subjects and a handful of conversations.
From the data collected, we can see that they are many factors and reasons for code-switching, namely to suit the interlocutors, the topic, the situation, the and also when using quotations or reported speech. It is also evident that S1 and S2, who are older, use more codes than S3. However, it is also evident that S2 has a verbal repertoire of the most number of codes and is proficient in 4 different codes, as opposed to S1 who is only proficient in Teochew and S3 who is only proficient in English.
Hence, the hypothesis that age correlates significantly with proficiency and usage of more than one code might not necessary hold in view of the study I have carried out. However, I would like to suggest that proficiency and usage of codes are not only dependent on age, but also on the education level of the subject, the type of education he received (English-medium or non-Englsih medium) and most importantly, his social network. I learnt the concept of network analysis in Milroy’s 1980 Belfast study and based on my findings, I feel that a network analysis would help to achieve a more insightful understanding of code-mixing.
By definition, network analysis focuses on the various kinds of social contacts that actors establish in the course of their regular routines and on the norms governing behaviors in these contacts. As we can see from my findings, S2 has had an English-medium education and is therefore proficient in English. Moreover, he has a wider job scope which requires him to meet with people from all walks of life and from different countries, speaking different languages. Thus, he has had to opportunity to pick up many different varieties and codes.
Due to business dealings, he has to learn to be proficient in many of these languages as well, making him the one (out of the three) who has the most significant proficiency level in terms of usage of different codes. The oldest S1, on the other hand, has a much smaller social network, explaining his lack of proficiency in the codes even though he has a rather large verbal repertoire.
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