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This is the beginner’s stage of learning the skill; lots of mistakes will be made, and it probably won’t reach the serving area. If this happens the teacher needs to correct them offering them lots of feedback on how to do it correctly. This can include demonstrations so the learner will have a clear understanding. The learner then needs to learn how to feel the movements. (Adopted from Stafford-Brown et al p132) The associative stage The associative stage is the next stage, once basic understanding and techniques of the skill has been acquired. The learner can enter a period of extended practice to reduce their mistakes.

There should be fewer gross errors, such as not timing the skill correctly. Tactics will then start to develop, and can be applied to real situations. This will help the learner to analyze their own performance and to detect and correct their own errors. There is an obvious change in the performance characteristics as the basics are already in the memory. The associative stage can be a long process and the learner may never reach the third stage. If the skill is repeated and practiced regularly then it could move on to the third stage which is the autonomous stage. (Adopted from Stafford-Brown et al p132)

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The autonomous stage The autonomous stage is the experienced stage, where the performer can produce the skill automatically, without conscious control of the production of the movement. The performance will be consistent and very few errors if any will be made. They will have control over their skills, for example the tennis player will not only be able to complete a sound serve but be able to place the serve to make it difficult for the opponent to return. The performer will now be able to process information easily, which will quicken the decision making and will give a quicker response.

They will also be able to seek out relevant clues and signals from the environment, which will help decision making and have quicker responses. Small improvements can still be made in terms of style and approach as well as other physiological aspects of performance. Task 4 The transfer of learning is so basic to learning that we almost assume it occurs. It is based on the theory that certain aspects of a skill learnt in one situation can influence performance in another. For example if you can shoot in netball, you can shoot in basketball.

Singer (1982) refers to this as ‘relating then with now” (Stafford-Brown et al p136) “The transfer of performance and learning from one situation to another has been an essential element of organisational and instructional approaches for many years. ” (Wesson et al 1998 page 528) There are different types of transfer that can occur- Positive- transfer is when a skill that has been learned help to learn other new skills. It is important with transfer if a teacher ensures that practice situations are realistic, as it has effects on the stimuli and response

Negative- transfer is where one skill inhibits another skill. The effects of negative transfer are limited and certainly temporary, it happens when a performer is required to produce a new response in a situation. This is where a performer has to adjust to the situation using the similar stimulus, but different responses. Zero- transfer is when one skill has no effect on the performance of another skill. Further classifications of skills where categorised by Stallings (1982) Skill to Skill- This occurs between two similar skills

Practice to Performance- For skills to be of any use, they must be transferred from practise to a game situation. Abilities to Skills- The performance of skills is based on the abilities which underpin the skills. To be effective in performing a skill we have to transfer our relevant abilities to the skill. Bilateral Transfer- Transfer of learning occurs between limbs. This may be from hand to hand, or leg to leg,. Transfer usually occurs between opposite limbs. Stage to Stage- The development of motor skills is dependent on building new skills on those learned previously.

Principles to skills- When a skill is learnt, we also learn the principle of the skill. For example timing and technique (Stafford-Brown et al p137) Examples of transfer are- Badminton and squash- positive transfer occurs between these two sports because they both involve hitting a ball, which involve the same skills and abilities (hand to eye co-ordination), also both shots are played with a flexible wrist. Badminton and tennis- Negative transfer occurs between these two sports of how the shot is played. In badminton the shot is a fairly fine skill, involving a flick of the wrist.

Whereas in tennis it is a gross movement using the forearm. Indoor football and outdoor football- Positive transfer occurs between these two activities because they are generally the same game but played in a different environment. The same skills are used so we also see skill to skill transfer. Rugby and basketball- These two sports have zero transfer as the skills from one sport cannot help or effect a skill in the other. But Positive transfer can occur in these two sports are they both involve similar aspects, such as creating space.

Also negative transfer could occur as rugby is a contact sport and basketball is non-contact, also the ball can not be passed forward in rugby. But proper explanation of the rules should avoid this. Horse riding are hockey- zero transfer occurs between these two sorts as they have nothing in common. Trampolining are high board diving- Positive transfer will occur between these two sports as they both involve acrobatics. All the skills needed to twist and turn can be positively transfer to one another.

BIBIOGRAPHY

Wesson, k. Wiggins, N. Thompson, G. Hartigan, S. Sport and PE 2000 hodder and stoughton

Stafford-Brown, J. Rea, S. Chance, J. sport and exercise science 2003 hodder and stoughton

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