Geophysics is a huge topic to cover, so in this case study I will only cover topics relating to radar, electromagnetic and other wave principles, such as the Doppler Effect or ultrasound. But the two main principles I will cover are, GPR- or Ground Penetrating Radar and EM- or ElectroMagnetic induction. Both of the methods stated above are used for various different detection, but mainly looking at ground defaults, checking mine shafts and looking for oil deposits.
I will also be looking at other applications of GPR and EM, looking at the possible risks and benefits, as well as looking at the impact on the social and environmental factors. -GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) Radar is a very simple protocol to grasp, a signal (usually radio waves) is produced by the radar transmitters and sent in the direction needing to be scanned, then the wave will reflect off the object wanting to be scanned and bounce back into the radar receivers, while the signal not being reflected will continue until it is lost or absorbed by other objects.
 Electromagnetic induction, measures the impedance change between a pair of magnetic coils, on or above the surface of the earth. The EM instrument comprises of two coils, primary or transmitter and secondary or receiver. An image showing the Equipment used to collect the data for a EM scan  The transmitter coil generates an electromagnetic flied at a specific frequency. The primary field then causes electrical currents to flow in conductive material at and in the subsurface. This flow of currents, called eddy currents,